Cabala is Hebrew for "received tradition." The expression is often used for all forms of Jewish mysticism in general.
More specifically, cabala refers to the esoteric theosophy that crystallized in 13th-century Spain and in the Provence, France, around Sefer ha-zohar (The Book of Splendor), referred to as the Zohar, and generated all later mystical movements in Judaism.
There are two main traditions within Cabala, which each use a different version of the Tree of Life: the Lurianic and the Cordovero. In the Lurianic version there are paths between Chokmah and Gevurah, and between Binah and Chesed, whereas the Cordovero does not have these, but has paths between Netzach and Malkhut and between Hod and Malkhut instead.
(Trivia: in English, Cabala, Cabbala, Cabbalah, Kabbala and Kabbalah are all correct ways to spell the word. Only Cabalah is not correct).