1. In Greek mythology, Athena was the name of Greek goddess, daughter of Zeus and Metis. Chronologically, she was Zeus' first child. She is the Goddess of Wisdom, Common Sense and Handiwork. In the days that Zeus was still fighting to establish his supremacy, and Typhon seemed to be winning, all the other Gods had fled, except for Athena, who stood by her father. Together they defeated Typhon. Since then, Athena also became the Goddess of Martial Arts and War. (Later on, Ares too became 'responsible' for the war-department). One of her attributes, is the owl, symbolizing wisdom, and the all seeing eye. (Owls can see in the dark, so they can see what others cannot; hence the idea that they are all seeing). Her Latin name is Minerva.
2. In Theosophy and modern New Age beliefs, Lady Athena is one of the Ascended Masters. Several channeled sources say she is a member of the Ashtar Command. Depending on the source, she has been linked to the fifth, sixth, and/or twelfth ray. Her attributes / qualities as an ascended master are the same as mentioned above.